On Taking the Time to Sharpen Your Axe




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What is Creativity in Education Really All About?

So we all want to become more creative teachers. But what does creativity in education really mean? Is it about making worksheets look prettier? Is it about teachers standing on tables and being more exuberant? Is it about loosening things up and rethinking organizational structures and curricula? Or is it about finding and using more unusual ideas in the classroom?


Creativity in education is none of these things.


Creativity in education is primarily about our students. It's about finding ways to allow them to infuse their own interests, strengths and passions into the learning process, and it's about encouraging them to generate new, interesting and useful ideas. It's about igniting curiosity and wonder. And most of all, it's about making learning relevant, fun, challenging and customized.

And creative teachers? Creative teachers develop personalized learning challenges for their students and then stand back, offering only a gentle nudge here and there. Creative teachers reimagine the syllabus in a one-size-doesn't-fit-all manner. Creative teachers turn lessons into experiences. Creative teachers allow their students to become their focus, and they make it their business to ensure that each and every single one of their students has as many opportunities as possible to find and walk the path in life that they most want to.





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8 Ways to Help Your Kids to Become Better Critical Thinkers (A Guide for Parents)


The ability to think clearly, logically and independently are key skills in the modern world. Not only will young people need to think critically in order to sparkle in the workplace, but they will also need to do so in order to avoid being sucked into the gurgling cesspool of misinformation, manipulation, magical thinking, and chicanery which characterizes our age.

First a definition of critical thinking:

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Computer Literacy Quiz for Teachers


Are you computer literate and ready for the digital revolution?

Take this quiz to find out:

(To open in a separate window, click here)


Lite Beer: Google Classroom Revisited

Dorian Love has another look at Google Classroom:

I have previously declared myself an avid Moodler, and this has not changed. However, most of the teachers in my school have swung over to Google Classroom, many from Edmodo, and so I have decided …

Source: Lite Beer: Google Classroom Revisited


10 Words Teachers Use That Make Me Grumpy

Let's jump right in…


There's nothing wrong with helping kids to develop a sense of determination and resilience. Too often though, the word 'grit' becomes a form of victim blaming, with schools (and society) defending their outdated (and often cruel) systems by saying that the victims of these just need to toughen up and be more flexible. Instead, we should be fostering in our kids a sense of compassion, and the courage to stand up against cruelty, intolerance, hardship and abuse, rather than being 'resilient' towards these things.

Here's an excellent read on the limits of teaching grit: The Problem With Teaching Grit.



The word 'rigor' is the last defence of the traditionalist and the teacher who has not read an academic article on education in the last two decades. It usually follows a phrase like: “Yes, this is all wonderful, but what about…” And while this may sound like a plausible point, what it actually means to people who use the term is that they see no merit in teaching hands-on learning, problem-solving, communication skills, as well as independent and innovative thinking, because these things have no bearing on high stakes assessments. Leaving aside the fact that this is an incredibly myopic perspective on the ultimate aim of education, the fact is, teaching critical thinking, creativity, collaborative and communication skills has a more positive impact on grades than the old 'rigorous' methodologies.



Often used as a synonym for 'rigor', or as a strengthening adjective for it, the word 'academic' is often used to try and lift dry, abstract, content-based learning to a place where it is venerated and above critique. It also implies that students need to be lead through the complexities of the academic with the careful guidance of an 'expert'. The truth is that much of what is lauded as 'academic' is anything but. I by far prefer the implications of the root of the word, which is from Plato's academy – a 'school' which preferences one-on-one dialogues, independent learning and critical analysis. More on why I loathe the word 'academic' can be found here: A Very Academic Problem.



Mindfulness means to be fully aware of the present moment. The term comes from Buddhism, and it has some rather nice, fluffy benefits, most of which have to do with not worrying about the past and the future, by only focusing on the now. Of late, there is an increasing move towards transplanting mindfulness into classrooms, where it is supposed to increase attention spans and eliminate a host of negative behaviors. Leaving aside the fact that we may be tainting our kids' critical thinking abilities by tacitly supporting idiotic practices like transcendental mediation, my problems with 'mindfulness' are twofold:

  • Firstly, it's all fine and well encouraging focus and eliminating stress, if we don't also prescribe homework, make use of high stakes tests or over-assess. All this does is to postpone the stress until after class, and make it someone else's problem.
  • Secondly, Hakuna Matata mindfulness encourages both a lack of planning as well as a lack of reflection. It means “no worries, for the rest of your days”, or, in the present vernacular, YOLO! And that's just irresponsible and stupid. Young people need to be taught responsibility, how to stand up to injustice (including those injustices endemic to the schooling system), and to have the courage to change the world. They also need to be encouraged to grow and improve themselves. And the only way to do this is to think beyond the now. Like King Simba eventually did.



I've written a post on why I despise tradition. Here is an excerpt:

Traditions are simply archaic rules that you want to entrench by calling them traditions. Tradition means doing what you’ve always done and obscuring the real reasons you’re doing it. You don’t question a tradition. Traditions are inculcated by schools simply because they make students easier to control. Students can never criticize any of these traditions because they’re traditions. They’re trapped in a circular argument designed to be self-reinforcing.

It is no coincidence that most traditions are about archaic rules. Tradition means you are able to enforce uniform regulations strictly and that you worry more about the length of a student’s hair and what’s stuck on their faces and in their ears than you do about what’s in their heads. Tradition means war cries and tribalism. It means group-think and conformity, and students become so brainwashed by a school’s traditions that they begin enforcing it themselves.

It’s classic social engineering.


Grades / Marks / Standardized Assessments

I hate 'em. I do. Even though I can't really think of a viable alternative. Reducing a child's learning journey to a number or a letter symbol borders on abuse, and it is the main motivating factor behind standardized, norm-referenced assessments, as well as our dangerous stigmatization of failure. But what do we do instead? There has to be a different way. More here.



If we build a culture of fear around failure, then not only do our students fail twice when they do fail, but we fail as teachers.


Discipline / Respect

Respect is a two-way process. You shouldn't expect it. You should earn it. If we want kids to question and to stand up for themselves and to be more independent, then how can we tell them they have to respect us simply because of our age and positions?

Most discipline problems result from boredom, stress, alienation and family issues. And from teachers failing to see kids as individuals. Seen this way, the best way to overcome disciplinary issues is through openness, compassion and empathy. It also means that we as teachers need to have a serious rethink about how we do things. But detentions, demerits and other punitive actions are just so much easier.



Creativity in education is supposed to be about encouraging students to think divergently, to find innovative solutions and to uncover their own unique passions. All of which is absolutely amazing and truly revolutionary. Unfortunately, like much of what is translated into classrooms from other spheres (see philosophy, critical thinking and problem-solving), creativity has become semantically bleached. Far from revolutionizing pedagogy, in practice, 'creativity' in most classrooms involves having students create a presentation, or teachers applying a thin veneer of prettiness to class notes, or asking kids to solve problems – to which there is only really one or two set answers. And of course, many think that 'creativity in education' is about how a teacher presents a lesson, where it is really about making a meaningful shift to student-driven learning. Almost anything is seen as creativity in classrooms these days, except that so little of it really is.



The thing with policies is that they are seldom written down anywhere. As such, 'policy' is most often actually just thinly disguised groupthink, and usually means either “we've always done it this way”, or “it's just easier this way”. Except the word sounds more formal, official – and above critique. A policy is supposed to be something to which the majority agree, except that in schools it is most often used to protect outmoded practices. The best way to get around a 'policy' is to ask to see it on paper. And if it isn't written down, and it isn't agreed to by the majority, then it can be questioned, even if the “policy” comes from the highest authority.




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A Better Way to Sell Reading to Teenagers

Instead of telling teens that reading is important because it will make them smarter and improve their grades, why not tap into their inherent desire to be independent, different and rebellious?

If a teen asks why reading is important, tell them this:


Reading is the best way to escape and be on your own – even when you're surrounded by people. It's also a perfectly legal way to hallucinate different worlds and different lives. Reading is an act of rebellion: you can think thoughts that no-one has taught you to think. And if you think about a good book deeply enough, it can give you superpowers that not many other people have.


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Why It’s Time to Stop Being Prissy About American English

So this thing's doing the rounds again:

When I was at school in Johannesburg, I was penalized for writing words like penalized with a 'z' (pronounced 'zed' – not 'zee'). Color was colour, favorite was favourite and even a cookie was a biscuit. I was indoctrinated into using 'the Queen's English' and, for the few years I taught the language, did my small part in brainwashing kids into using the 'right' version of the language. I was even moderately haughty because my English was better than the majority of what I was reading and hearing on television and in movies.

Then I began writing this blog. And I realized that the majority of my readers were American. My crisis of conscience came early, mercifully, and I knew I had to rethink my bias towards British English. Why on Earth would I insist on using a version of the language which would alienate 70% of my audience? So I dropped the British in favor of the American. Which, in turn, lead me towards becoming quite vocal about using American English in the various schools at which I have taught. But I haven't really sublimated my vocal protestations into writing until now.

So here it is: My 7 reasons why it's time to stop being prissy about American English

  • By far the majority of fiction and non-fiction, whether it is online, in print or in visual media come out of the good old US of A. Shouldn't those who make the most use of the language get to determine how the language is used? (And if your answer to this question is a stubborn 'no', then you are, I feel, denying the entire history of the language. English has always been malleable – shaped by those who use it. Just look at Shakespeare: take out all of the misspellings and neologisms, and you'll have nothing special left.) Think about it this way: The word 'nice' is used as a compliment these days, we don't hold on to its original meaning (describing someone who is silly, foolish or simple). And a similar semantic shift has happened with so many of the words we use. English is a democratic language: the majority decides. Eventually. That said, why should we standardize either way? The differences are so minor, and we all understand what is meant anyway, is there really any reason why we can't weave our own dialects into the version of English we want to use? Granted, business and legal documents would need some kind of standardization, but both of those are their own dialects anyway.
  • Building on the previous point: If teachers are going to insist on British English, despite the prolific output of books, movies, web content and television series in the American version, then they should not be prescribing American fiction or using American movies for visual literacy. What a silly thing to do: Prescribing Catcher in the Rye or The Great Gatsby or Shawshank Redemption or Dead Poet's Society, and then penalizing kids for picking up the language these masterpieces use. Kids pick up a language in context, yet so many of us insist on telling them that most of what they read, view and hear is wrong.
  • The majority of examination boards in the former colonies and the current Commonwealth who do insist on British English no longer penalize kids for using the American version (or, as I do, skipping schizophrenically between them). Yet, in the lower grades, teachers remain remarkably prissy about not using American spelling or 'Americanizations'.
  • Every English speaking country has shaped the spoken language to its own customs and quirks. Aussie English is a very different beast to Scottish English in the spoken vernacular, and the English South Africans speak is very different to the Irish. And we are very open to this. In fact, we enjoy the diversity of English dialects. Yet when we write, we insist on trying to be model British citizens? Is this so that we can be globally understood? If this is the case, American English should be (and is) the ligua anglica of the globalized world. This is the twenty-first century, not the nineteenth.
  • Holding on to the traditional use of something is actually a little bit nonsensical: Functional fixedness is a form of cognitive bias that “limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used”. This mental block may well limit creativity, innovation and the evolution of the language. (Again, think of Shakespeare.) Perhaps controversially, I would even contend that a large measure of the enormous American creative output is exactly because they have been able to create their own brand of English, and that they see the language as malleable instead of inflexible.
  • The point of learning a language is to make yourself understood, and to understand others. In writing, spelling is indeed important, simply because you are not taken seriously if your writing is riddled with errors. But American English spelling is just easier, and young people, as well as second language speakers are far less likely to get stuck on the arcane quirks of British English spelling than they are on American spelling. The result is that communication in American English is easier and less intimidating.
  • And American grammar is so much easier and drastically less confusing. Take formal and notional concord. In British English, you can say either “Which team are winning?” or “Which team is winning?” – depending on whether the collective is/ are considered a team or a group of individuals. In American English, it is always “Which team is winning?”

Source: Wikipedia


American English is not the poor cousin of British English. It isn't a mistake. To imply that it is, is to ignore the prolific literature and other works coming out of the USA. Language is for communicating effectively, and it should not be made more difficult than it needs to be. American English is simpler and easier to use, but it that doesn't make it less effective. Moreover, for countries like South Africa, who are still mired in British English, it smacks of elitism and a strange alliegance to a former colonial master. I say ignore the snobs and speak and write the English you're most comfortable with, and don't look down your nose at those who use the language differently to you. It only makes you look uncool.

And yes, I know my writing still holds on to many British conventions (like my preference for using adverbs like 'differently' instead of the more American 'different'). I take my language the way I take my tea: the way I want it. English is my language as much as it is the Queen's. Deal with it.

More recently, during a debate in the House of Lords in 1978 one of the members said: “If there is a more hideous language on the face of the earth than the American form of English, I should like to know what it is.” (We should perhaps bear in mind that the House of Lords is a largely powerless, nonelective institution. It is an arresting fact of British political life that a Briton can enjoy a national platform and exalted status because he is the residue of an illicit coupling 300 years before between a monarch and an orange seller.)”

― Bill Bryson, The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way


I look forward to your comments.


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5 Surprising Advantages of Marking Longer Answers Using Google Forms & Sheets (Guest Post By Michael Caplan)

This post by my colleague Mike Caplan is re-blogged from the original on my dynamic new school’s blog. I think he is onto something really interesting…

5 Advantages of Marking Longer Answers Using Google Forms and Sheets (By Michael Caplan, History & English)


Many tech-savvy teachers may be aware of the super cool self-marking that Google Forms in combination with Flubaroo brings. However this works mainly with short answers, multiple choice matching columns, true and false etc. Nevertheless, Forms (in combination with Sheets) can also be used for longer answers. I had a go at this and after several uses have found some distinct advantages, some of which were quite surprising:

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13 Alternative iPad Presentation Apps (That Aren’t Keynote, PowerPoint or Prezi)

Don't get me wrong, I do love Keynote. I was one of those who actually paid for it way back when I got one of those original iPads. And then Prezi came along and blew our minds. And finally, Microsoft (finally) gave us a pretty darn good version of PowerPoint – which I also use – often, and shamelessly. They're really great apps, all three of them.

But there are a few other really good presentation apps out there which you can use to build engaging content.

(Note: There are one or two other apps that do what these do, but I am not recommending them because I find them either too unreliable or difficult to use.)

In no particular order:


Google Slides

Why? Because it's collaborative. Slides should actually be classified with Keynote, PowerPoint and Prezi, but it isn't generally used by as many people, in my limited experience. And it should be.

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Technology Integration: 24 Lessons Learned (One Term In)


So I've been working for three months now to bolster the integration of technology at my new school. In essence, my job is to encourage teachers to integrate technology in meaningful ways in a streamlined, pedagogically sound way.

Now, as I reflect on the term I've had, I must say it has been an overwhelmingly positive experience. Our teachers have, by and large, been very open to new ideas, and are excited about integrating technology into their classes.

I am not sure if the group of people I work with are typical of other schools, and if what I've noticed applies more broadly, but I'm going to put these ideas out there, firstly because that's what this blog is all about, and secondly because there may be something here that other edtech directors and schools might learn from.


The Lessons Learned

  • The ICT teachers are an essential core of any integration efforts. Do nothing without them!
  • Having a team of people who are excited about technology is essential. I have an awesome and diverse team who share ideas, assist with individualized training, learn as part of our PLN on Twitter, attend conferences, and who get other teachers excited about tech. Integrating technology is about creating a culture of innovation, and that can only happen when there is a core group committed to spreading the love.
  • By far the majority of teachers are keen to try integrating technology into the classroom. For most, you just have to show them the basics about how to use it, why it's valuable, and how it will save them time, and off they go. For some, some additional support, patience and encouragement are required.

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The Cheeky Philosophy of NationStates

I've been playing NationStates for just over a year now. An amazingly simple, yet somehow deeply addictive on-line game, you basically play by setting up your own nation and then making a few decisions every day. Guns or flowers? Coal or solar? Cars or bicycles? Religion or secularism? Gay marriage? Polygamy? Nudism? Welfare? The power! The pressure…

Your decisions affect your country's economy, political freedoms and civil rights – often in ways you don't expect. For example, after passing legislation to tighten gun control, I got this message: “Kids are arrested at gunpoint for playing with toy rifles”. Well.

There are a great many social, environmental and economic indicators which all change as your decisions start to pile up. And by many, I do mean many. Your country also gets classified differently depending on your mix of rights, freedoms and economic performance. My nation, for example, has been a Left-Leaning College State, a New York Times Democracy and a Scandinavian Liberal Paradise.

You can't really win anything on NationStates, although your Regional Influence can change and you can also get more involved on the forums and in managing regions. You can also get badges and banners and endorsements if you're into that kind of thing. You can even wage war if you want to, and on Halloween, you can choose to either repel or join the zombie hordes. (Which comes with its own philosophical considerations.)

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Apps for Education: Adobe’s Awesome iPad App Suite

I've been playing around with some of Adobe's iPad apps. There are quite a few of them in the App Store and they're all free. And they're actually pretty good.

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The Ant

This morning there was an ant in the bath. I think she came in because she was thirsty. She was skittering around the drain where there was a thin sliver of water from the dripping tap. It's been a very dry year and we've had hundreds of ants invading our home and garden. But we've had fewer spiders, thank goodness. In wetter years we've had to deal with more than a few massive rain spiders. This is not a bundle of laughs, I can assure you.

Ants are fascinating really. They form complex societies (sometimes even keeping slaves), they build intricate structures, communicate with chemicals, carry many times their own weight, and some even farm fungus and aphids. Some can even build living bridges and life rafts. Ants are as old as the dinosaurs, have conquered almost every habitat on the planet, and number in the quadrillions. Some even think that ant colonies might be considered an early form of civilization.

The ant in the bath this morning was a banded sugar ant. She was about a centimeter in length, with six fairly long legs. The thing with bigger ants is that their fascinating three-segmented, large mandibled anatomies are so much easier to see and marvel at. We don't get many sugar ants where I live, more often we get those little black garden ants making a nuisance of themselves whenever we leave the dishes a few minutes too long, or drop a crumb or two on the kitchen floor. Because they're so small, you can't really appreciate the little ones as much. They just look like little smudges.

I will confess, I usually murder these little black things when I see them, often with a firm press of my thumb, and sometimes in great numbers in a cloud of insecticide (when they invade en masse). I am paranoid that they will get into our food, you see, and my caveman food-protecting instincts kick in. But I am a bit more circumspect with sugar ants. With them, as with spiders, I usually use a shoe heel or a protective wad of toilet paper.

But I couldn't quite bring myself to kill this one. And I'm not entirely sure why. Part of me felt sorry for her. It's been a dry, hard year for all of us. Part of me was also enthralled at her struggle to get out of the bath tub. (If I left her for long enough, would she die of sheer tress and frustration – or from hunger?) And yet another part of me was considering where she came from in the first place – where there is one ant, there's usually a colony. And I suppose if I'm honest, some of me was a bit too apathetic to grab a wad of toilet paper in order to smoosh her and put an end to the whole business. I could have opened the tap, I suppose, to wash her down the drain, I could have hit her with a squirt of Doom, I could also have helped her out by giving her something to climb.

But I did none of these things. I just couldn't decide whether to help her or to kill her.

In the end, I left her there to try and find her own way out. Why should her life or death be my decision? Why should I have to be the one to agonize over what to do. Far easier to ignore her plight and walk away.

So I did.

She's dead now.

I'll wash her little corpse down the drain before I bath tonight.




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Hope Over Fear: On the Importance of a Connected Global Community

Here's Mark Zuckerberg on the importance of a globally connected world (as opposed to a Trumpian* 'walled world').


We stand for connecting every person — for a global community, for bringing people together, for giving all people a voice, for a free flow of ideas and culture across nations. And this idea of connecting the world has gotten stronger over the last century. You can now travel almost anywhere in the world in less than a day. Countries trade more openly and cooperate more easily than ever.

And the Internet has enabled all of us to access and share more ideas and information than ever before. We've gone from a world of isolated communities to one global community, and we are all better off for it.

But now, as I look around and, as I travel around the world, I'm starting to see people and nations turning inward — against this idea of a connected world and a global community. I hear fearful voices calling for building walls and distancing people they label as “others.” For blocking free expression, for slowing immigration, reducing trade, and, in some cases around the world, even cutting access to the Internet.

It takes courage to choose hope over fear — to say that we can build something and make it better than it has ever been before. You have to be optimistic to think that you can change the world. And people will always call you naïve, but it's this hope, and this optimism that is behind every important step forward.

Our lives are connected. And whether we're welcoming a refugee fleeing war or an immigrant seeking new opportunity, whether we're coming together to fight global disease like Ebola or to address climate change, I hope that we have the courage to see that the path forward is to bring people together, not push people apart — to connect more, not less.

We are one global community: The mother in India who wants to work so her family can have a better life, the father in the US that wants a cleaner planet for his children, the daughter in Sierra Leone who just needs basic healthcare and education so she can stay safe and reach her full potential, and that young boy in Syria who is doing the best he can with the cards he's been dealt to find a good path forward in the world.

And we, sitting here today, are part of this community too. And if the world starts to turn inwards, then our community will just have to work even harder to bring people together. And that's why I think the work we are all doing is so important. Because we can actually give more people a voice. Instead of building walls, we can help people build bridges. And instead of dividing people, we can help bring people together.

We do it one connection at a time, one innovation at a time, day after day after day. And that's why I think the work we're all doing together is more important now than it's ever been before.


* Trumpian: After Donald Trump: Former contender for the Republican nomination for president. Meaning something that is parochial, narrow-minded, bigoted, insular, short-sighted and intolerant. As in: The recently passed anti-LGBT legislation was very Trumpian in nature. Or, the removal of that atheist page from Facebook was seen as highly Trumpian.


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Quotes for Free Thinkers

I’ll just leave these here.



How to Change Minds: 7 Gentler Persuasive Strategies

In disputes upon moral or scientific points, ever let your aim be to come at truth, not to conquer your opponent. So you never shall be at a loss in losing the argument, and gaining a new discovery.

Arthur Martine (As quoted by Maria Popova of Brain Pickings)


It is incredibly difficult to change minds. Even the strongest arguments, with the best supporting evidence, will seldom cause any kind of crack, let alone foundational mind-shift. Opinions and world views tend to set over time, and they become more resistant to being chiseled away at.

The reason our minds become so solidly set mostly has to do with cognitive biases like confirmation bias, loss aversion, the bandwagon effect and the just-world phenomenon. I don't want to go into these in great detail here, as fascinating as they are, so in short: cognitive biases essentially work because we treat ideas and information like we do physical possessions. That is, once we 'own' them, we protect them, assign them a higher value than they would ordinarily have, and, of course, we see them as markers of our social, cultural and economic place in the world.

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24 Things Gaming Can Teach Us About Real Life


Whatever the format, whatever the genre, every day, digital games engage millions of people from a multitude of backgrounds, ages, ethnicities and lifestyles. And yes, there are a few evils associated with gaming, but these are mostly related to the nastiness that anonymity seems to breed in some (especially younger) players, as well as the health problems related to being too sedentary in front of a screen, munching snacks and imbibing carbonated drinks. But we are fairly certain that there is no causal link between what people do inside games and what they do in real life.

That said, there are a number of social, emotional and especially cognitive benefits associated with gaming. And on a philosophical level, the experience of gaming can teach us a few important lessons about real life:


  • Sometimes you just have to grind through it. There isn't always an exciting new quest or a sparkling new level to navigate or an intriguing new puzzle to solve. Sometimes you just have to stick at it, going backwards and forwards, to get the thing done.
  • Sometimes it's better with friends. Sometimes it's better on your own.
  • You may be able to carry around everything you find, but you can't use it all. In fact, sometimes a full inventory can slow you down and confuse you. The parallel with life is both in terms of our tendency to accumulate stuff we don't really need, as well as the useless mental and emotional baggage we carry around.

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Teaching Freedom: Why a Liberal Education is an Essential Component of a Progressive Education


What is it to be liberal? My definition runs as follows:

Liberalism is a world view that espouses the values of freedom, democracy and equality. Encoded into the term as a political system are the notions of social welfare, secularism and choice.


A liberal worldview would thus be one which emphasizes the value of personal choice – so long as no-one else is hurt as a result of those choices. Translated into a system of government, liberalism focusses on this same freedom to choose, as well as endeavoring to uplift the living standards of all people (especially the destitute) so that they have the option to choose their lifestyles more freely. A liberal society is thus one which embraces individuality, change and the welfare of the many.

A conservative world view is not the opposite of liberalism but a perversion of it. Co-opting the language of liberalism, conservatives will still say they value freedom of choice, but in reality, these choices are placed within such narrow bounds, as to make them statutory. Thus, even though conservatives will argue that they should have the freedom to choose how they live their lives, those choices are essentially confined to what the group believes is traditionally morally acceptable. As a political philosophy, this constrained worldview is put forward as the model of correct behavior, to which all citizens are to subscribe. A conservative society will privilege the rights of the few, be averse to change and multiple perspectives, and advocate a parochial view of the world.


Now let's look at education:

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Edtech Integration Advice: The Pipes Before the Taps

Original image: Wikimedia


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